How Heat Pumps Work

 and other downloadable Information

Downloads & Information

How Heat Pumps Work and other download and technical FAQs.

Here you will find help for all our Toyesi Heat Pumps. Download User Manuals, Information sheets, like “How Heat Pumps Work”, trouble shooting documents and more. Can’t find the Downloads & Information that you are looking for send us a message and we will endeavour to help you.

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How heat pumps work and other Downloads & Information – Download and discover more about how heat pumps work or about our highly efficient Heat Pumps, our services and our technical offerings. We have high quality premium design and built heat pumps & equipment built to last. They are all immaculately designed, manufactured right here in Sydney with Commercial quality fittings and functionality. So regardless if you are a home owner or commercial venture if you appreciate quality, and the value of a system that will last a lifetime then these systems are for you.

The Bitterness of poor quality remains long after
the sweetness of low price is forgotten


FAQ – How Heat Pumps Work & Other Questions & Answers

How heat pumps work?

Heat pump theory rests on the principle that heat will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature.

Hence, if a heat transfer coil can be kept at a lower temperature than its surrounds, it will absorb heat. Thus, it will capture heat from the surrounding air by drawing it through a lower temperature finned tube type heat exchanger.

The ambient heat is absorbed by the low temperature refrigerant gas circulating in the system, where its temperature is increased by a vapour compression process and by absorbing the motor windings heat of the compressor.

The heat of the high temperature refrigerant gas is then transferred to the circulating water via refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger.

Typically Heat Pumps will use electricity to run the internal components, however their efficiency is such that 1kW of electricity used will produce around 5kW of heat energy.

This makes heat pumps around 500% plus more efficient than electric elements and twice as efficient as gas heating systems.

Is Toyesi's heat pumps Australian?

Toyesi began in 1989 in a factory in Western Sydney.  We now reside in our Kings Park factory where we design and build our heat pumps and chillers

Yes some equipment must be imported, but only when not available locally. For example we purchase components like Thermostats, Gauges, Compressors from wholesalers, whom import this equipment into Australia.

However, we buy in sheet metal, and make our own cabinets and chassis. We build our own heat exchangers and bend and braze our own pipework, and do the electrical wiring ourselves. Our PC control board is also our own and we have this made for us by a Sydney company.

So yes, our heat pumps  are made here in Sydney, we designed them, built them and often even install them as well as quality check each one before it leaves our factory.

What Clients Does Toyesi Work With?

The clients we love

Thanks to our open-minded approach and flexibility throughout the entire design manufacturing-installation cycle, Toyesi meets the needs of an extensive cross-section

of widely differing clients and their individual needs, currently including but not limited to:

  • Strata and non-strata apartments and retirement villages
  • Aquatic centres and swimming schools
  • Council and school swimming pools
  • Hotels, leisure centres and caravan parks
  • Rehabilitation heated and chilled pools
  • High-end domestic pools and spas
  • Non-pool based solutions including tooling and food manufacturing
  • Aquaculture projects and horticultural installations
  • University research centres
  • Sports facilities

What are Toyesi Heat Pump Standard Features?

Features of TET Pool Heat Pump Equipment.

  • 304 stainless steel outer casing internally insulated to prevent condensation. Upgradable to 316 Stainless Steel or even powder coated for extra corrosion protection.
  • Front mounted prop-fans in all outdoor models to truly push the cool air away from the system and prevent air-flow recycling.
  • Centrifugal ducted fan arrangement for in-plant or indoor pool installation.
  • Thick-walled 90/10 copper-nickel marine grade coaxial heat exchangers for pool. Upgradable to full metal Titanium heat exchangers where water quality is a concern for that extra piece of mind.
  • Our heat exchangers do not use PVC Shells, but rather full metal jackets for superior performance and to avoid leakages and deterioration of the PCV Shell.
  • Pool water balance by-pass valve assembly three-way tee 50mm union connections.              
  • Vertical construction, small foot print for where space is a premium. Although in some applications require a complete custom chassis, which can be designed for the project a hand. A true flexibility over an off the shelf product.
  • Digital thermostat control for heater operational modes.
  • Scroll Compressor latest high efficiency technology.
  • TX thermostatic expansion valve for optimum refrigerant control process.
  • Liquid line filter drier fitted and liquid sight glass for correct refrigerant charging.
  • High-pressure refrigerant and low-pressure safety controls.
  • High-pressure and low-pressure refrigerant gauges for correct water flow tuning.
  • Quick access refrigerant connection for service.
  • Tradesman friendly design and phone support 7 days.
  • All components are of highest quality and most available off the shelf and/or from parts from refrigeration suppliers.


CPU Controlled devices:

  • Condenser Management CPU Processor (AU)
  • Three fault restart processor prevents false tripping
  • Compressor thermal overload protection
  • Fan motor thermal overload protection
  • High pressure safety control
  • Low pressure safety control
  • Condenser fan commercial Zeil, Solar & Palau (EU)
  • Sensor probe: pool water heat exchanger temperature inlet safety
  • Flow switch non-corrosive pressure (US)
  • No water flow indicator.
  • Sensor probe error Indicator
  • Antifreeze lock out

Toyesi is known as a Premium Brand, does it cost more?

There are a few reasons why we are a little dearer than a other heat pumps in the market place.

Firstly, we make our equipment here. Which means we have Australian salaries to contend with. But we are very proud of our team and would not want this any other way.

Secondly, we put a lot of effort into our designs. Selecting the best 304 Stainless steel for the chassis. We also select the best thermostats, gauges, and components within reason. But also select parts that are easily sourced by any other Australian service agent out there. Making our equipment quicker and easier to service.

We also put a lot of safety features inside our equipment which many companies do not include.

We also use full metal heat exchangers in our heat pumps. The Titanium Tube in PVC shell may sound great, but often they will use thin walled heat exchangers to save cost, and the PVC often will leak and crack in time. Our full metal heat exchangers cost more, but do not have these shorter life spans.

As you maybe able to see, we build our units with love, attention to detail and quality parts. We want our clients to be happy not just today, but also 10, 15 and over 20 years form today.

Serviceable for a lifetime.

Installation Mistakes

Installing heat pumps is a fairly easy process, however, depending on the project on hand a Plumber, Electrician and/0r a Refrigeration specialist may be required for installation and commissioning the unit.

However, over the years we have noticed the same mistakes made over and over again and a majority of these mistakes are due to the heat pumps installation location.

Typical mistakes include:

  • Placing outdoor units in an enclosure or indoors.
  • Not taking in consideration of where the air intake or air discharge will be situated.
  • Not providing a platform or base for the units to sit on.
  • Location of pump equipment
  • Length and location of water piping from heat pump to pool.
  • Heat gain or lose due to uninsulated pipes or water tanks, pools etc.
  • Noise considerations


Installation – Outdoor Positioning

The unit must be located in a position that provides adequate air circulation without re-circulating de-energised air, or restricting airflow, and to allow adequate service access.

Top discharge units suffer from “MUSHROOMING” cold air due to the fact that cold air goes down and warm air goes up.  The cooler discharge-air, if not in an adequate ventilated area, can fall back down surrounding the heat pump. This cooler air then re-enters the air intake causing the heat pump to draw heat from the cooled air rather than warmer air. The by-product is discharging even cooler air.

The net result is a heat pump sitting in its own cold air slowly freezing over and will not perform the job of heating the water in the pool or tank.

These units are designed for outdoor applications and must not be installed in a totally, or semi-enclosed, or naturally ventilated enclosure such as a garage or shed.

Toyesi made the choice to make ALL our units front mounted fan configurations as standard. To ensure that this cooler air is always pushed away from the heat pump. However our flexibility allows us to change the fans location during the design and build stage to suit each projects requirement.

Alternate indoor units should be selected.


Noise Levels

All heat pumps and air-conditioners produce noise. This will come from the fans, air movement and internal compressor workings.  Although many brands offer different sound ratings, if you have several units in a given location sound levels may become problematic and considerations considered.

Positioning of the unit should be done with consideration to noise generated  i.e. not beside a bedroom. Having the air discharge in a courtyard noises can echo around the space.

Consider trees, bushes or sound barriers to break up this noise discharge. You can also move a heat pump into a plant room, which will also reduce noise levels. If however, these simple solutions are not enough, you will have to look at sound attenuation solutions.

Toyesi Specialises in sound Attenuation Projects, and have the ability to add additional sound muffling solutions to our heat pumps to help with these issues.

Installation – Indoor Positioning

Most heat pump providers provide retro-fit designs to use their out-door units for an indoor installation. However, outdoor fans are not designed for the static pressure of ducting, and this will cause decrease in machine capacity as the fans struggle to keep up the appropriate air flow.

For an indoor or in-plant installation, Toyesi heat pumps are specially fitted with a high static ducted fan upgrade kit for static losses of air intake and exhaust ducting.

This is necessary to ensure integrity of the heat pump’s heating capacity and operating efficiency by preventing re-circulation of cold de-energised air passing back through the outdoor finned coil.

Service Access

Service access regions are specified for each heat pump model. Please allow room around a unit to allow for a serviceman to get to the unit.

Mounting Surface

Under no circumstances should the unit be dropped or laid on its side during handling and transportation.

The unit should be mounted on a level, sturdy surface. Large pre-formed concrete slab or paving blocks may be used.

Does Toyesi supply all of Australia

Yes, Toyesi has supplied heat pumps and chillers to a wide variety of customers Australia wide.

Using either Simon National Carriers or a freight company of your own choice, we can supply to almost any part of Australia.

We have customers in Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, ACT, Queensland, Western Australia and Northern Territory, as well as a few overseas clients.

So regardless where in Australia you reside, we will be happy to supply you with our very best equipment.

What Solutions Does Toyesi Specialise in?

Toyesi has been designing and building heat pumps since 1989. Giving Toyesi 30 years plus industry experience in Australia.

We understand the difference between a system installed in Tasmania when compared to an installation in Northern Territory. So unlike an off the shelf, get what you get, system. Toyesi has the ability to adjust, tweak and test equipment for projects right across Australia. This has allow Toyesi the privilege to work on a wide range of projects, with a wide range of clients.

Toyesi specialises as follows:

  • Heat pumps from 4 kW up to 300 kW in either heater, chiller or reverse cycle heater/chillers. All units can be linked together for those extra large projects.
  • All systems can be either built as outdoor or in-plant ducted units.
  • All outdoor units have front fans as standard. However, fan placement is selectable.
  • We can also retro-fit our units for those strange location projects, including build on site projects.
  • Custom built heat pumps – For your non-standard builds
  • Dehumidification & Air flow systems
  • Energy capture, Storage & Recycling projects
  • We are also well known for our Sound attenuation builds for those sound sensitive projects.
  • We can cater for 99% of aquatic heating or chilling projects from 10C to 55C, including reverse cycle heating/chilling projects.
  • We can cater for fresh, chlorinated, salt water & chemical laden water projects.
  • We can even assist with UV & other water treatment equipment to ensure equipment longevity.
  • We can also work with water pump timers, air handing, energy capture and other amazing project.

What makes Toyesi different?

A lot of brands of heat pumps claim quality with buzz words and sneaky warranties and promises that have hidden underling disclaimers.

Here at Toyesi we simply produce quality heat pumps, that have been proven in the Australian market for 30 years. With units still in play 10, 15 and 20 years plus. In fact one of our units was after 23 years of service sold as a second hand unit and is still in operation today. So we know we offer true longevity and value for money.

  • Hand made chassis in 304 Stainless Steel with 316 available as an upgrade.
  • In house patented full metal heat exchanger design and construction that offers superior heat exchange and efficiency.
  • Full metal titanium heat exchanger upgrades – yes they cost a little more but they do not suffer the issues Titanium & PVC shells have.
  • Easy to service design, Easy to Install Design
  • Safety features such as crank case heaters, reverse cycle defrost and H&L pressure regulators to prevent false outages.
  • Fully customisable design
  • Outdoor, Indoor, ducted, energy recapture & dehumidification designs.

So if you are looking for a heat pump or chiller with true long lifecycle expectations then look no further than a Toyesi Heat Pump.  Made here in Sydney Australia.

Included Features for Quality & Longevity

Locally Produced

All Toyesi heat pumps are locally designed and manufactured in Australia ensuring long-term serviceability and product support.


Capacity Ratings

Our heat pumps are capacity rated under ‘low ambient’ design conditions reflective of those cold winter months, so there is no mistake when selecting a Toyesi model for your pool or aquatic heating application.


Distinctive Case Design

Aesthetic, robust design with corrosion resistant stainless-steel casing and fasteners used throughout. Built to endure typical outdoor weather conditions, it is resilient to airborne chemicals, minor concentrated chemical spills, and has no issues with ultraviolet deterioration, cracking or fading. Casing of ‘standard’ models are manufactured in ‘304 Grade’ stainless steel materials.

Casings can be manufactured in ‘316 Marine’ grade stainless steel to provide added protection against harsher environments including salt spray typical of coastal regions, and airborne chemicals typical of in-plant applications drawing air from the pool enclosure, underground car park, or similar.


Compressor Technology

Incorporating latest technology compressors ensure ultra-quiet operation, superior efficiency and dependable long-term reliability.


Heat Exchangers

Specifically designed for use with swimming pool water, Toyesi’s high efficiency patented design single and tri-core heat exchangers are of coaxial tube-in-tube design with an external powder coated finish providing added corrosion protection.

Counter-flow water and refrigerant circuits coupled with materials specifically selected with extremely high heat transfer coefficients deliver optimum performance and efficiency.

The oversized outdoor finned coil heat exchangers are optimally sized to maximise heat transfer.

Suited for majority of applications, they are standardised in a natural finish to reduce initial purchase costs, and are optionally available in a fully dipped epoxy & baked coated finish for higher resilience to salt water sprays and airborne chemicals.


Reverse Cycle Defrost

Toyesi has always lead the industry in producing ‘true’ reverse cycle heat pump systems that ensure maximum heating is achieved throughout the extended swimming season. Defrost is handled in such a way that down time is a matter of minutes rather than hours, meaning that you rarely will see any change in pool temperature as a result.

In all our multi-stage heat pumps each stage are segregated and individually controlled in relation to defrost.  This means that each unit can independently defrost without stopping the whole machine.


Condensation Tray

Fully welded stainless-steel trays with connecting stub tube are located beneath the finned coil to capture condensate whilst the heat pump is in operation. Condensate can be simply routed to a floor waste drain, garden, or even returned to a make-up (or balance) tank to reduce refilling costs of the pool due to evaporative losses.


Pre-Plumbed Water Balance Valve

Toyesi’s customised water balance valve is pre-plumbed by factory personnel for simple connection to any sized filtration or circulation pump set. Designed to regulate water flow rate through the heat exchanger at its optimum rate, this device ensures you get optimum operating performance throughout the extended swimming season.


COP Indicator Gauge

Unique to all Toyesi heat pumps is our visible needle gauge – used to adjust water flow rates to an optimum setting and indicates operating performance whilst unit is in operation.


On-board Self Diagnostics

No unit is complete unless it able to communicate its state of operation. The controllers LED lamps are designed to assist a service technician in performing their work, and the externally mounted ‘NO FLOW’ fault light visually illuminates when there is insufficient water flow passing through the heat exchanger.


Slow Rotational Fans

All outdoor models are fitted with highly efficient ‘commercial grade’ propeller fans with maximum airflow at slow rotational speeds for quieter operation. Incorporating powder coated safety grille and stainless-steel fasteners; these fans deliver reliable performance and resilience to corrosion.


Side Discharge Fans

Distinctive of all Toyesi outdoor models, this intentional design offers several benefits including:

  • Units can be stacked on top of each other when space is of premium.
  • Units can be installed beneath timber decking, verandas, and even garden pergolas and patio awnings.
  • No issue with cold de-energised air re-circulating back through finned coil.
  • No issue with falling leaves or debris getting caught in rotating propeller fan(s).
  • No issue with having to clean out heavy dust or falling debris collecting within the case.


Digital Display – Single Operation

Our digital display thermostat accurately controls the pool or spa water temperature without overheating or wasting energy. Standard models are fitted with single thermostat for heating of a pool or spa within one degree Celsius, and digitally displays the circulating water temperature.


Energy Management Controller

Intelligent energy management controller ensures reliable operation throughout the swim season. Coupled with this controller is electrical, refrigerant and water flow safety devices ensuring equipment protection and peace of mind.


Soft Starter

This device alleviates hassles commonly experienced by domestic customers having to pay additional costs associated with installing 3-phase metering systems. It enables selection and use of our larger single-phase heat pumps at a marginal cost to the pool owner.


Factory Testing

Be assured that your new heat pump is safe and fully operational with complete factory performance testing conducted on every production unit before delivery.


Serviceability in Mind

Toyesi heat pumps have continually evolved over the years to cater for service personnel making them one of the most desirable units to work on, thereby reducing labour costs of performing routine maintenance and service.


Flow Switches

Pressure flow switches are included as standard with TET heat pumps and chillers. This is to prevent cooking the heat exchangers when the unit detects a no flow situation. Paddle flow switches can also be used, and are the recommended switches for heat pumps installations greater than 2m above or below pool water surface.


Spare Parts

All components are sourced from local suppliers meaning replacement parts are readily available ensuring minimal downtime in event of a fault.

Terms & Conditions Downloads

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Fact Sheets

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Fact Sheet #1
What makes Toyesi Different?

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Heat System Comparisons

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Running Cost Comparisons

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Heat Pump Placement Consideration

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Facts about Heat Exchangers

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Control Systems

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Dehumidification & Condensation Water Calculation

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The Basics

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